Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be defined as the disruption in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external physical force. The yearly incidence of TBI is estimated at 50 million cases worldwide; thus, approximately half of the global population will have an episode of TBI in their life. TBI is a heterogeneous entity, reflecting several underlying macroscopic modes of injury as well as a range of mechanisms by which neuronal injury can be inflicted in differing proportions with resultant varying clinical courses. Practically, the clinical severity of TBI has long been stratified according to post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale scores into mild (GCS 14–15), moderate (9–13), and severe (3–8) [6, 7]. Severe TBI has mortality rates between 30–40% and can cause significant physical, psychosocial, and social deficits in up to 60% of cases.

Traumatic brain injury

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