A stroke, also known as a brain attack, occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is blocked or when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. In either case, the affected parts of the brain sustain damage or die. Strokes can lead to lasting brain damage, long-term disability, or even death. In the United States, stroke has become a significant problem, with over 795,000 cases occurring each year. It is the leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death. Ischemic stroke, which accounts for 87% of total strokes in the US, is the primary focus of stroke research.

Management of stroke typically involves rapid reperfusion through intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular thrombectomy, both of which aim to reduce disability. However, time is critical in the effectiveness of these treatments. Therefore, improving the system of care to minimize treatment delays is crucial for maximizing the benefits of reperfusion therapies.

Stem cell therapy has garnered significant attention for its potential to provide therapeutic effects in stroke patients. Various types of stem cells, including bone marrow mononuclear cells, bone marrow/adipose-derived stem/stromal cells, umbilical cord blood cells, neural stem cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells, have shown improved neurological outcomes in animal stroke models. These stem cells have also been evaluated in clinical trials involving stroke patients.


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