Acute Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is primarily caused by the partial or complete blockage of coronary arteries due to vulnerable plaques that may rupture or erode. This accounts for approximately 70% of fatal MI cases. The INTERHEART study, which included over 15,000 patients, found that 90% of myocardial infarctions were attributed to modifiable risk factors such as smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity, and diabetes in men (94% in women).

There is an urgent need for therapies that target immune response modulation at a molecular and cellular level after MI. Exosomes, a type of extracellular vesicle, contain a rich cargo of biologically active substances, including lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Emerging evidence suggests that exosomes play crucial roles in immune regulation following MI. Various immune cells participate in the immunomodulation process after MI, working together to clear necrotic tissue and repair damaged myocardium. Stem cell therapy for MI has been a significant area of research in the past two decades, and exosomes secreted by stem cells have emerged as important bioactive substances with similar therapeutic effects, including immunomodulation, anti-apoptosis, anti-fibrotic properties, and promotion of angiogenesis, comparable to those of the stem cells themselves.

Acute Myocardial Infarction

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