Systemic Vasculitis

Systemic vasculitis refers to a group of diverse conditions with an unknown cause, characterized by inflammation and necrosis (cell death) of blood vessels of various sizes. Three distinct clinical-pathological syndromes, often associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), have been identified: Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). While there is no universally accepted classification system for systemic vasculitis, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has published classification criteria for WG, CSS, and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). These conditions can impede blood flow, leading to tissue and organ damage.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated immunosuppressive properties in preclinical studies and clinical trials involving inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent evidence highlights the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs, which act through paracrine mechanisms involving bioactive substances secreted by the parent cells. Emerging research suggests that MSCs exhibit a significant inhibitory effect on various effector cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses.

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